On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Montgomery. She was arrested and convicted of violating the segregation laws known as Jim Crow laws. On December 5th local activists initiated a boycott of the Montgomery bus system after the arrest of Rosa Parks. Since African Americans made up about 75 percent of the riders in Montgomery, the boycott posed a serious economic threat to the company and a social threat to white rule in the city.
The bus boycott lasted about 13 months and ended in December 1956 when the US Supreme Court ruled that the segregation law was unconstitutional and the Montgomery buses were integrated. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was the beginning of a revolutionary era of non-violent mass protests in support of civil rights in the United States.